Iodine is an essential trace element and is called "intellectual element." Iodized salt refers to the addition of a small amount of potassium iodide (or potassium iodate) edible salt, mainly for the supplement of iodine to prevent thyroid disease. The study found that two-thirds of the body's iodine in the thyroid gland, the main physiological function of iodine is completed by thyroxine.

The role of iodine includes: promoting energy metabolism, maintaining basic life activities; maintaining the physiological functions of the pituitary; promoting the development of the body and brain.

In the early stages of brain development (from pregnancy to two years after birth), the human nervous system must rely on thyroid hormones. If iodine is not enough, it may cause the baby's brain to fall behind, causing the mental response to be dull, and it is severely called clinically "dead". This process is irreversible. Even if iodine is supplemented later, it may not return to normal.

Severe deficiency of iodine may also lead to iodine deficiency disorders, endemic goiter, cretinism (infants and young children lack a disease caused by thyroid hormone), miscarriage, stillbirth, congenital malformations, and increased neonatal mortality. It may lead to mental and physical developmental disorders in children, causing intelligent damage to the population in iodine deficiency areas. Most of the iodine in the diet is converted to iodide in the gastrointestinal tract, which is absorbed by the body and then enters the blood and is distributed throughout the body's extracellular fluid.

Usually, crops can absorb enough iodine from the soil. However, in many parts of the world, the soil iodine content is insufficient. The New York Times reported that nearly one third of the world’s population currently cannot get enough iodine from food and water. The most effective and cost-effective way to supplement iodine is to artificially add iodine to salt, which is widely used in China, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand.

According to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), humans only need to take 150 micrograms of iodine daily. Now most of the iodine-containing salt in the market contains 20-50 micrograms of iodine per gram of salt. Take 6 grams of salt a day as an example, intake of iodine has reached 120-300 micrograms. The WHO recommends that the salt intake per person per day is 6 grams, but our country's citizens generally exceed 20 grams.

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