In winter, fruit trees enter a dormant period and various pests and diseases enter the overwintering stage. Although the winter and dormant pests have enhanced their ability to tolerate adverse environments, due to the limited number of inactive and overwintering sites, the winter season has become an opportune time for the prevention and control of pests and diseases. Especially for those pests that originate from the local area and have a limited range of transmission, and are more resistant to saprophytic infections.
For different pests and diseases, winter treatment can choose to remove the sick, the treatment of branches and soil treatment in three ways.
Many leaf spot diseases are known, such as brown spot, spotted leaf disease, black spot disease, gray spot disease, round spot disease, and round spot disease. They mainly survive the fall of leaves, so the leaves are cleaned and concentrated (deep buried or high temperature composting) ), or plowing to bury the leaves in the soil, all have obvious disease-preventing effects. Some pests and diseases that rely on diseased branches and onset of freezing fruit, such as ringworm, anthrax, brown rot, dry rot, blight, branch blight, and canker, also need to be combined with pruning to remove diseased branches or diseases. Spots and bring out deep in the orchard. The key to the implementation of pastoral hygiene measures is perseverance and as thorough as possible, because in the right weather, the remaining small number of germs will soon multiply.
Branching treatments include cutting off diseased branches, scraping or brushing bark, scraping and treating spots, and spraying medicaments. Scrapping or brushing the bark can eliminate old mature larvae, eggs, or maggots of apple borer, pear borer, peach aphid, yellow thorn moth, pear star caterpillar, and many leaf roller moths and ticks. Scratch treatment of lesions to be carried out in the late winter (such as the beginning of the second half of February in Hebei Province), is equivalent to the surgery in human medicine, mainly for rot, ring rot disease, ulcer disease, dry rot and other pole diseases. To completely remove lesions, a small amount of healthy tissue needs to be removed, and the depth must reach the xylem of the fruit tree. After the operation, one or two doses of medicine can be applied to protect the wound. The main choice of pharmaceutical agents is Formicol and its formulations.
The dormant period of the fruit tree is sprayed with 3-5oBe lime sulfur or 30 to 60 times crystal lime sulfur solution before the bud to protect and treat a variety of diseases, as well as scale insects and leafhoppers. Note that the 3-5oBe lime sulfur mixture can only be used before germination. The liquid concentration and spray quality not only affect the control effect, but also cause phytotoxicity. Grapes, peaches, plums, plums and other fruit trees are more sensitive and generally cannot be used.
Soil treatment mainly refers to ploughing and irrigation. It not only improves the soil, maintains the soil moisture content, but also turns diseased leaves, fruit droppings, weeds, etc. that remain on the surface of the earth into soil, and turns up soil insects such as cockroaches, beetles, wireworms, and floorworms. Freeze to the ground or let the birds eat. In combination with freezing water, it is also possible to suffocate eggs, larvae and cockroaches in the soil.

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